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Welcome to the Glossary section of the Conflux documentation. This section is designed to provide you with clear and concise definitions of key terms and concepts used within Conflux and the broader blockchain industry.

The terms are organized in alphabetical order for easy navigation. Each term includes a straightforward definition and, where applicable, links to more detailed explanations within our documentation or external resources.


51% Attack

A 51% attack refers to a potential attack on a blockchain network, where a single entity or organization is able to control the majority of the network's mining hash rate. This control could allow them to disrupt the network by altering the ordering of transactions, preventing new transactions from gaining confirmations, or even allowing for double spending. It's called a "51% attack" because it typically requires at least 51% control of the network's hash rate to be successful.


The Conflux global state is described in an account model, with the basic storage component called an account. Every actor, which is either a person or an entity that is able to interact with the Conflux world, has its necessary information stored in an account α as a key/value pair of address and corresponding state. Refer to general-accounts for detailed information.


An address in Conflux is the identifier of an account. It's a unique string of characters that represents the account on the blockchain. The format of the address can differ in different Conflux spaces. There are different formats for espace addresses and Core Space addresses.

For example:

// espace address
// Core Space Mainnet address
// Core Space Testnet address

Refer to general-address, core-address, espace-address for more information.


In blockchain technology, a block is a collection of transactions. It's like a page of a ledger or record book. Each block is linked to the one before it and after it, creating a chain of blocks, hence the term "blockchain". In the context of Conflux, blocks form a tree-like structure, allowing for multiple blocks to be produced concurrently.


A blockchain is a decentralized and distributed digital ledger that records transactions across many computers so that any involved record cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks. This technology underpins cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, and it's the foundational technology for the Conflux network.

Blockchain Explorer

A blockchain explorer is a tool or website that allows individuals to search and analyze the real-time and historical data of a blockchain. It functions like a search engine for blockchain transactions, blocks, and addresses. Users can view detailed information about individual transactions, including the amount transferred, the addresses involved, transaction fees, and the block in which the transaction was recorded. Blockchain explorers are essential for verifying transactions, understanding blockchain activity, and conducting audits, making them invaluable resources for users, developers, and analysts interested in the specifics of blockchain operations.

The official blockchain explorer for Conflux is ConfluxScan.


CFX is the native currency of the Conflux network. It's used to incentivize the maintenance of the Conflux network and charge users for consumption of resources. CFX plays a very important role in the stability of the system, working as the reward for consensus mechanisms, the transaction fee for each transaction, and for DAO voting.

The smallest subdenomination is denoted by Drip, in which all values processed in Conflux are integers. One Conflux is defined as 10^18 Drip. Frequently used subdenominations of Conflux are listed below:

Multiplier (in Drip)Name

For more information on the genesis creation, distribution, and release of CFX, please refer to:

ChainId & NetworkId

chainId is a number indicating where a transaction is intended to be executed. It is used to prevent transaction replay attacks. The chainId of Conflux chains are constant, currently:

  • Conflux Core Mainnet: 1029
  • Conflux Core Testnet: 1
  • Conflux eSpace Mainnet: 1030
  • Conflux eSpace Testnet: 71

networkId is used to distinguish between blockchains at the network layer. Currently Conflux mainnet/testnet's networkId is same as chainId. You can get both of these from the cfx_getStatus RPC method.

Conflux Ecosystem

The Conflux Ecosystem refers to the various projects, applications, platforms, and services that are built on or integrated with the Conflux network. This includes decentralized applications (DApps), decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms, wallet services, and more. The Conflux Ecosystem is a vibrant and growing community of developers, users, and organizations that contribute to the Conflux network.


ConfluxScan is the official blockchain explorer for the Conflux network. It provides a user-friendly, details-driven interface for users to view, confirm, and inspect transactions and contracts on the Conflux network. With Conflux Scan, users can track the status of their transactions, view the balance of their accounts, explore smart contracts, and much more.


Consensus Algorithm

A consensus algorithm is a process in computer science used to achieve agreement on a single data value among distributed processes or systems. In the context of blockchain, it's used to agree on the (total) order of transactions. Conflux uses a unique consensus algorithm based on a Tree-Graph structure, which allows for high throughput and low latency in large-scale decentralized networks.

DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph)

In the context of Conflux, DAG is used to represent the block structure of the Conflux network. Unlike traditional blockchain systems that follow a linear chain, Conflux forms a DAG structure of blocks, allowing for multiple blocks to be produced concurrently. This structure is key to Conflux's ability to achieve high throughput and low latency.

Decentralized Application (DApp)

A decentralized application (DApp) is a computer application that runs on a distributed computing system such as a blockchain. Unlike traditional applications that run on centralized servers, DApps leverage the power of blockchain's peer-to-peer network to provide transparency, immutability, and resistance to censorship. The typical framework of a DApp includes 2 layers: the front-end or user interface, and the smart contracts running on the blockchain acting as the back-end logic. The front-end, developed using standard languages like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, interacts with the blockchain through smart contracts. These smart contracts, written in languages like Solidity, define the rules and logic of the DApp, and are stored and executed on the blockchain, ensuring consistent and trustless operation.

Double Spending

Double spending is a potential flaw in a digital cash scheme in which a single digital token can be spent more than once. This is possible because a digital token consists of a digital file that can be duplicated or falsified. The Conflux network, like other blockchain networks, uses a consensus mechanism to prevent double spending.


In Conflux, an epoch is a fundamental unit used to update the world state, setting it apart from blockchain like Bitcoin or Ethereum, where updates are done by block. An epoch in Conflux is a specific partitioning of blocks that determines their total order. This partitioning is based on the pivot chain in a Tree-Graph structure, and the pivot block will be the last block in each epoch. Once the pivot chain is determined and not reverted, the partition of epochs becomes immutable, meaning the order of transactions and execution results cannot be changed.


ERC20 is a standard for tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. It specifies a set of functions and events that a token contract has to implement. While this is a standard on the Ethereum network, tokens on the Conflux network can also follow this standard, especially if they are transferred from the Ethereum network via the Zero Gravity protocol.


ERC721 is a standard for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Ethereum blockchain. Unlike ERC20 tokens, which are identical to each other, each ERC721 token is unique. This makes them suitable for representing ownership of unique items or assets. Like ERC20, ERC721 tokens can also exist on the Conflux network, especially if they are transferred from the Ethereum network.


ERC1155 is an Ethereum token standard that supports multiple token types, including fungible and non-fungible tokens, within a single contract. By enabling batch transfers, it efficiently reduces transaction costs. ERC1155 tokens can also exist on the Conflux network, enhancing flexibility and interoperability for digital assets in gaming, art, and beyond.

EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine)

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a powerful, sandboxed virtual stack embedded within each full Ethereum node, responsible for executing contract bytecode. Contracts are written in high-level languages, like Solidity, then compiled into bytecode, which the EVM can read and execute. The EVM ensures that programs do not have access to each other's state, thus allowing for the safe execution of code without risking the network's security. It is pivotal for enabling the programmability and flexibility that smart contracts offer in the Ethereum ecosystem. In the context of Conflux, EVM compatibility allows developers to deploy Ethereum contracts on the Conflux network, benefiting from Conflux's scalability and efficiency while leveraging Ethereum's robust developer tooling and ecosystem.


Finalization refers to the process by which transactions and blocks on the Conflux blockchain are considered definitive and irreversible. This process is critical for the network's security, as it prevents the possibility of double-spending attacks and ensures the blockchain's integrity. In the context of Conflux, PoS chain will periodically choose and refer to a PoW block which is created several minutes ago, thus providing finalization to all blocks (transactions) before the epoch of the specified block, ensuring they cannot be altered or removed subsequently.


A fork in a blockchain system denotes a split or divergence in the chain, originating from a common point with a shared history and creating two distinct paths. They can be implemented intentionally via software updates to either bring about significant changes (hard fork) or introduce backward-compatible alterations (soft fork). However, forks can also occur organically due to simultaneous block creation or as a result of network latencies and block propagation delays.

Additionally, malicious activities aimed at disrupting the network, performing deceptive transactions, or double-spending can also force a fork in the system. These inadvertent forks are typically short-lived as subsequent block addition commonly results in the resolution of temporary branches. No matter the reason for their occurrence, forks are an inherent part of the dynamic and decentralized nature of blockchain technology, necessitating robust consensus mechanisms to manage and mitigate potential issues.

Refer to Hard Forks for more information of Conflux history hard forks.

Further reading:


In the context of blockchain, "gas" is a term primarily associated with networks like Ethereum. Gas is a measure of computational effort required to execute specific operations. Each operation has a fixed amount of gas associated with it, related to the complexity of the operation.

Gas must be paid when user initiate transactions or execute smart contracts, essentially serving as a transaction fee. The concept of gas incentivizes miners to validate and add transactions to the blockchain. Additionally, by attaching a cost to every operation, gas prevents spam on the network and discourages inefficient code, enhancing overall network security and efficiency.

Gas is also required for transaction execution in either Conflux Core Space or eSpace. And in Core Space, besides gas, collateral for storage is also introduced as transaction fee.

Refer to Gas for more information.


GHAST (Greedy Heaviest Adaptive SubTree) is the Conflux protocol's rule for selecting a chain from the Tree-Graph structure. It's designed to ensure safety and liveness properties in the network. GHAST is a key part of Conflux's unique consensus mechanism.

Refer to GHAST for more information.


A hash is a function that transforms input data into a fixed length output, also known as a "hash value". Various hash functions, such as the SHA-256 (Secure Hash Algorithm 256-bit) used primarily in Bitcoin and the Keccak-256 employed in Ethereum as well as Conflux, serve pivotal roles in assuring blockchain security. Hash function plays a crucial role in blockchain as they ensure a unique hash is generated for every block within the blockchain has. For example, these hash functions are used in generating unique identifiers for blockchain blocks and in creating a secure linkage between blocks in a blockchain, with each block bearing a unique hash.

Significant to note is the principle of hash invertibility. A hash function is considered as a 'one-way' function, meaning while data can be converted into a hash value, the process cannot be reversed. That is, it is computationally infeasible to derive the original input data solely from the hash value. The data held by the hash is, therefore, deemed to be secure, reinforcing the integrity and security of blockchains, hence making them a fundamental component in the technology. This uniqueness and inability to reverse engineer the original data from the hash, reinforces the integrity and security of the blockchain.

Internal Transactions

Internal transactions in blockchain refer to value transfers or operations within a smart contract. These transactions are triggered by external transactions and can involve actions such as transferring tokens, creating new tokens, executing function calls, or interacting with other smart contracts. These transactions are not recorded individually on the blockchain, but they can be tracked and displayed for analysis and visibility.

ConfluxScan and trace JSON-RPC API can track and display internal transactions for analysis and visibility.

Related links:

Merkle Tree

A Merkle tree, in cryptography and computer science, is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block, and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Merkle trees are used in blockchains to efficiently verify the contents of large data structures.


A "mined" block in the Conflux Network refers to a block in which transactions have been validated and added to the blockchain after successfully being processed through mining. This status indicates that the block has passed the network's consensus mechanism, ensuring its transactions are secured and immutable within the blockchain ledger. The term differentiates such blocks from those still awaiting validation.


Mining is like a competition where people use powerful computers to solve puzzles. Each puzzle solved helps confirm new transactions and safely add them to the blockchain. Think of miners as special participants who use advanced equipment, like ASICs or high-performance GPUs, to take part in this puzzle-solving contest. The contest involves lots of trial and error to find a special code (hash value) that fits certain rules. When a miner finds the right code, it's like they win the round, allowing them to add a page (block) of confirmed transactions to the ledger. The first one to do this gets a prize in the form of digital money (cryptocurrency). In the Conflux network, this process helps to build a unique ledger structure known as the Tree-Graph, which organizes transactions in a special way.

Refer to Mining for more information about running a mining node.


In the context of blockchain, a node is a server that participates in the blockchain network. Each node keeps a copy of the blockchain in some way (depending on its type) and follows the rules of the network. Nodes validate transactions, maintaining the network's security and decentralization.

Refer to Run a Node section for more information about running nodes.


In blockchain technology, nonce ("number only used once") has different meaning in different context.

In mining, nonce is a number added to let the block header meet the difficulty level restrictions. The nonce is the number that blockchain miners are solving for.

In transaction, nonce is the execution sequence number of transactions sent from an account. A transaction with incorrect nonce won't be included in blockchain, so correctly setting the nonce is critical to transaction execution. Refer to nonce for more information.


In the context of blockchains and smart contracts, an oracle is an agent that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used by smart contracts. Oracles are used in the Conflux network to bring external information into smart contracts, enabling them to interact with the outside world.


TWAP stands for “time-weighted average price”. It’s a pricing algorithm used to calculate the average price of an asset over a set period.In DeFi, a type of decentralized exchange (DEX) known as an automated market maker (AMM) can be used to generate TWAP prices that can be used in other protocols. TWAP can also refer to a trading strategy used to execute a large-volume order by breaking it into equal parts across a set period in order to minimize slippage and signaling.

Peer-to-Peer Network (P2P)

A peer-to-peer network is one in which each computer in the network can act as a client or server for the other computers in the network, allowing shared access to files and peripherals without the need for a central server. Conflux, like other blockchain networks, operates as a peer-to-peer network, with each node communicating directly with others.

Pivot Chain

The pivot chain is a selected sequence of blocks within Conflux's Tree-Graph structure, used to determine the total order of blocks and transactions. It acts as a backbone organizing and finalizing the transaction set, ensuring consistency and finality across the network. The pivot chain is chosen through an algorithm considering various factors, such as the accumulated proof-of-work (PoW), to maintain the system's security and stability.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

Proof of Stake (PoS) is a type of consensus algorithm where block creators are chosen based on the number of tokens they hold or are willing to "stake". PoS is used in the Conflux network to prevent 51% attacks and to finalize blocks.

Refer to PoS for more information.

Proof of Work (PoW)

Proof of Work (PoW) is a type of consensus algorithm where the first participant to solve a complex mathematical problem gets to add a new block to the blockchain. PoW is used in many blockchains, including Bitcoin and Ethereum before September 15, 2022. While Conflux uses a unique consensus mechanism based on a Tree-Graph structure, it shares similarities with PoW in terms of incentivizing participants to maintain the network.

Refer to PoW for more information.

Public/Private Key

A public key is a cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into his or her account. The private key is used to sign transactions or digital messages and the public key is used to verify the signature. In the context of Conflux, users have a pair of public and private keys that they use to interact with the network.

Smart Contract

A smart contract is a self-executing contract with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. They run on the blockchain, so they are stored on a public database and cannot be changed. In the Conflux network, users can create and interact with smart contracts, which can automate a wide range of applications and processes.


In the Conflux network, "Space" refers to a specific environment within the network. For example, Core Space refers to the original Conflux network, while eSpace is the virtualized Ethereum chain running on top of the Core Space network. The two spaces are logically independent of each other and do not affect each other except for certain cross-space operations.

Refer to Spaces for more information.

Sponsorship Mechanism

In Conflux Core Space, the transaction fee for contract execution can be paid by users but also by contract sponsors. This sponsorship mechanism allows DApp users on Conflux to not worry about gas fees, improving user experience. Sponsors can set up a sponsorship by depositing CFX into a contract.

Refer to Sponsor Mechanism for more information.

Staking (in Conflux)

Staking in Conflux typically refers to the PoS staking, the process of participating in the network PoS consensus by locking up a certain amount of CFX. Stakers can earn rewards for their participation. This mechanism helps to secure the network and incentivize participation.

Refer to Staking FAQs for more information.

Collateral for Storage

Collateral for storage (CFS for short, or storage collateral) mechanism is introduced in Conflux Core Space as a pricing method for the usage of storage, which is more fair and reasonable than the one-off storage fee in Ethereum. In principle, this mechanism requires a fund being locked as collateral for any occupation of storage space. The collateral is locked until the corresponding storage is freed or overwritten by someone else, and the corresponding interest generated by the locked collateral is assigned directly to miners for the maintenance of storage. Thus, the cost of storage in Conflux also depends on the duration of space occupation.

For more information, refer to Storage Collateral.


A Conflux transaction is a single instruction composed by an external actor with a Conflux account, and this instruction is cryptographically signed using the sender account's private key to prevent transaction forge. A transaction can involve a simple transfer of CFX (the native currency of Conflux), a transfer of tokens (such as ERC20 or ERC721), a deployment of a new smart contract, or an execution of a function on an existing smart contract. Transactions are the only way to store or update data on the blockchain.

Refer to Transactions for more information.


In the context of Conflux, the Tree-Graph is a novel consensus mechanism that allows for high throughput and low latency in large-scale decentralized networks. Unlike traditional blockchain systems that follow a linear chain, Conflux forms a tree-like structure of blocks, allowing for multiple blocks to be produced concurrently. This structure is key to Conflux's ability to process a high number of transactions per second.

Refer to Tree-Graph for more information.


In the context of blockchain, a wallet is a digital place to store cryptocurrency. It can be in the form of a software (online or offline) or hardware device. In the Conflux Network, users can use wallets like Fluent to manage their CFX and interact with the network.

Refer to Wallets for more information about supported wallets.