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Comparison Operators

In the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), the selection of comparison operators influences the efficiency and gas consumption of smart contracts. Opting for < (less than) and > (greater than) over (less than or equal to) and (greater than or equal to) is notably more gas-efficient. This is due to the absence of direct opcode instructions for and in the EVM's design, which requires additional operations to achieve these comparisons.

Given that iszero consumes 3 units of gas, utilizing and in contracts that frequently perform comparisons can lead to increased gas expenditures.


Below are examples of code achieving the same result using < and <=, respectively.

contract CompareLessThan {
// gas: 247
function isSmallerThan(uint256 value) external pure returns (bool) {
return value < 8;

contract CompareLessThanOrEqual {
// gas: 250
function isSmallerThanOrEqual(uint256 value) external pure returns (bool) {
return value <= 7;

Assuming value is 7, both functions will return the same result. However, the < operator will be more gas-efficient than the <= operator.

Recommendations for gas optimization:

🌟 Using the < and > operators is more gas-efficient than <= and >= in smart contracts.