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In Solidity, developers can define errors in three main forms: revert, require, and assert. The main differences between these methods from a functional perspective are two-fold:

  1. Whether they can throw developer-defined error reasons;
  2. Whether they can throw developer-defined errors carrying variables;

The main differences are as follows:

TypeCustom ReasonCarries VariableExample
revertReason: UnauthorizedAccess(0x05D01CAF54524A610CCF187082201120757f7AE5)
requireReason: UnauthorizedAccess
assertReason: Assertion violated


Below, we use the three forms of errors to observe the changes in gas usage:

contract Error {
error UnauthorizedAccess();

// gas: 164
function errorRevert() external pure {
if (true) revert UnauthorizedAccess();

// gas: 268
function errorRequire() external pure {
require(false, "UnauthorizedAccess");

// gas: 180
function errorAssert() external pure {

the gas optimization suggestions are as follows:

🌟1. revert is the most recommended as it can throw error messages as well as related variables.

🌟2. The string in require is stored on-chain, which not only consumes more gas but also increases the contract size. It is recommended to choose based on actual needs.

🌟3. If there's a scenario where assert is used, it's suggested to replace it with revert.